The goal of this project was to examine associations between multiple occupational exposures and smoking within a Toronto-based lung cancer case-control study.
As well, data from this case-control study was contributed to the SYNERGY project. The SYNERGY project is an international study that has pooled data from lung cancer case-control studies performed across Europe and North America. These studies collected information on both occupational risk factors and smoking history. By pooling the data from these studies, a massive database was formed which allows complex interactions between exposures to be analyzed.
Workers are often exposed to multiple carcinogens in their workplace, or over the course of their working life. The effect of these carcinogens in combination is mostly unknown. Studying the interaction between multiple occupational carcinogens is difficult, as the low numbers of people exposed to two or more specific carcinogens results makes statistical analysis challenging. However, understanding the joint effects of occupational carcinogens is important for improving prevention efforts and ensuring appropriate compensation for workers who develop occupational cancer.
For the Toronto study, a questionnaire was given to lung cancer patients and controls to detail their job history, including main tasks and length of employment for all jobs held for at least 12 months. Information on smoking habits was also collected in order to be able to control for the impact of smoking on lung cancer risk.
The SYNERGY pooled analyses are being coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, and the Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences at Utrecht University.
A comparison of exposure assessment approaches: lung cancer and occupational asbestos exposure in a population-based case-control study
Lung Cancer among Coal Miners, Ore Miners and Quarrymen – Smoking-Adjusted Risk Estimates from the Synergy Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies
Lung cancer risk among hairdressers: a pooled analysis of case-control studies conducted between 1985 and 2010
Lung cancer risk among bakers, pastry cooks and confectionary makers: the SYNERGY study
Welding and lung cancer in a pooled analysis of case-control studies
Effect modification of the association of cumulative exposure and cancer risk by intensity of exposure and time since exposure cessation: a flexible method applied to cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the SYNERGY Study
Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case-control studies
Lung cancer risk among cooks when accounting for tobacco smoking: a pooled analysis of case-control studies from Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and China
Is previous respiratory disease a risk factor for lung cancer?
Lung Cancer Among Firefighters: Smoking-Adjusted Risk Estimates in a Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies
Occupational prestige, social mobility and the association with lung cancer in men
Exposure–Response Analyses of Asbestos and Lung Cancer Subtypes in a Pooled Analysis of Case–Control Studies
Lung cancer and socioeconomic status in a pooled analysis of case-control studies
Diesel Engine Exhaust Exposure, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Subtype Risks. A Pooled Exposure–Response Analysis of 14 Case–Control Studies
Respirable Crystalline Silica Exposure, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Subtype Risks. A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies
Lung cancer risk in painters: results from the SYNERGY pooled case–control study consortium
Application of two job indices for general occupational demands in a pooled analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer
Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Lung Cancer Risk: Results from a Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies (SYNERGY)
Occupational exposure to nickel and hexavalent chromium and the risk of lung cancer in a pooled analysis of case-control studies (SYNERGY)