Grundy, A., Tranmer, J., Richardson, H., Graham, C.H., Aronson, K.J. The influence of light at night exposure on melatonin levels among Canadian rotating shift nurses. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, September 2011.
BACKGROUND: Shift work has been identified as a risk factor for several cancer sites in recent years, with melatonin as a potential intermediate on the proposed causal pathway. This study examined the influence of nighttime light exposure on melatonin levels among 123 rotating shift nurses.
METHODS: Nurses working a rotating shift schedule (two 12-hour days, two 12-hour nights, and five days off) were recruited and participated on a day and night shift in both the summer and winter seasons. Over each 48-hour study period, nurses wore a light data logger and provided two urine and four saliva samples.
RESULTS: Saliva measurements showed that the pattern of melatonin production did not differ between day and night shifts. Mean light exposure was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) when nurses were working at night, although peak melatonin levels (P = 0.65) and the daily change in melatonin levels (P = 0.80) were similar across day/night shifts. Multivariate analysis did not show an association between light exposure and melatonin levels when data from both shifts was combined; however, when data from the night shift was considered alone, a statistically significant inverse relationship between light and change in melatonin was observed (P = 0.04).
CONCLUSION: These results show that light exposure does not seem to be strongly related to reduced melatonin production among nurses on this rapidly rotating shift schedule.
IMPACT: Future research considering more extreme shift patterns or brighter lighting conditions could further clarify the relationship between light exposure and melatonin production in observational settings.